The month of Ramadan is a special month for Muslims around the world. In Ramadan, Muslims are obliged to observe fast worship with restraint from indulgence and everything that can cancel fasts such as eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. Not only spiritual, but fasting can also have a physical effect. A study carried out in Saudi Arabia indicates that when a person fasts, the individual will also experience some changes in his daily life, such as eating habits, sleeping habits, and even metabolism in his body may change (Bahammam, 2010 in Norhasanah & Salman, 2021).
In Ramadan month, Muslims across the world will fast during the hours of daylight and can not eat or drink until the sun sets. Fasting can be challenging since our body does not get any food and fluid intake for around 13 hours. During fasting, the body uses carbohydrate that is stored up in liver and muscles (1,2). Once all has been used up, it uses fat as an energy source (3). Meals must contain adequate carbohydrate and fat to prevent muscle breakdown. Hence, balanced diet is very important. There are some things to consider so that you will be in a good condition during fasting and worship remains smooth.
Nowadays, the rapid development of science and technology is felt in various sectors, including nutrition and health. The concept of a medical paradigm through a predictive, preventive, personal, and participatory approach can manage and support a specific health status for individuals. Personalized nutrition is a basic concept that shows everyone has a different metabolism, genetics, biochemistry, and microbiota that contribute to the body’s response to nutritional intake. Therefore, the concept of personalized nutrition applies multidisciplinary, such as nutrition, medicine, biology, epigenetics, and genomics to demonstrate the relationship of individual variation to a disease risk.
Recently people are familiar and connected with the science and technology development especially in the health area. In health area, technology has been widely used in such areas as communication, education, and health management. Besides that, technology has also been widely used for diet management, food nutrition database, and anthropometrics measurements. Technological applications in the field of nutrition have now entered a “genomic era” that relates to the development of nutrigenetic. Nutrigenetic is science that studies the interaction between the genetic impact and nutrition in specific individuals. The relationship between genes and individual nutrition intake is specifically known by the term personalized nutrition. The term has broken the old approach called “one size fit all” which means the nutritional needs are united for everyone.
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are any type of drinks that are sweetened with added sugars, such as brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, raw sugar, and sucrose (1,6). This includes, but are not limited to, regular soda, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened waters, also coffee and tea beverages with added sugars (1). SSB usually contains high calories but it will not make you feel as full as if you had eaten the same calories from solid food. There is a research (2) that explained about sugar content of SSB per serving of product in Indonesia by sampling 91 SSB products from a popular convenience store. On an average, the amount of sugar per serving was 22.8 g or 86.3 g/1000 ml. Sugar in sports drinks had the highest contribution to energy of products (93.33%).